Archives

  • 2018-07
  • 2019-04
  • 2019-05
  • 2019-06
  • 2019-07
  • 2019-08
  • 2019-09
  • 2019-10
  • 2019-11
  • 2019-12
  • 2020-01
  • 2020-02
  • 2020-03
  • 2020-04
  • 2020-05
  • 2020-06
  • 2020-07
  • 2020-08
  • 2020-09
  • 2020-10
  • 2020-11
  • 2020-12
  • 2021-01
  • 2021-02
  • 2021-03
  • 2021-04
  • 2021-05
  • 2021-06
  • 2021-07
  • 2021-08
  • 2021-09
  • 2021-10
  • 2021-11
  • 2021-12
  • 2022-01
  • 2022-02
  • 2022-03
  • 2022-04
  • 2022-05
  • 2022-06
  • 2022-07
  • 2022-08
  • 2022-09
  • 2022-10
  • 2022-11
  • 2022-12
  • 2023-01
  • 2023-02
  • 2023-03
  • 2023-04
  • 2023-05
  • 2023-06
  • 2023-07
  • 2023-08
  • 2023-09
  • 2023-10
  • 2023-11
  • 2023-12
  • 2024-01
  • 2024-02
  • 2024-03
  • 2024-04
  • 2024-05
  • 2024-06
  • br Materials and methods br Results and discussions br

    2024-05-13


    Materials and methods
    Results and discussions
    Conclusion Fermented camel milk with NS4 exhibited remarkable ACE-inhibitory activity, which revealed its potential application for the preparation of fermented camel milk beverage or fermented camel milk derived peptides in different foods or in nutraceutical, functional foods, and possibly supplemented in case of blood pressure regulating. Fractionation of the fermented camel milk samples through reversed phase liquid chromatography and LC-MS under the optimized growth conditions expressed that ACE-inhibitory peptides were ranging in smaller molecular weight and novel peptides were identified from fermented samples. Furthermore, these findings presented that, camel milk (Camelus dromedarius) can be a better option for the ACE-inhibitory peptides rather than bovine milk. Further, validation through animal models and human studies are required to prove the health claims.
    Conflicts of interest
    Introduction The Montreal Protocol is an international treaty that controls substances such as SGI-1027 and halons that deplete stratospheric ozone [1]. Stratospheric ozone prevents deleterious near ultraviolet radiation (200–300 nm) from reaching the ground. Rowland and Molina [2] discovered that long-lived chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) emitted by human activities are inert in the troposphere but are photolyzed in the stratosphere and release chlorine atoms. These chlorine atoms destroy ozone in a catalytic cycle involving the ClO free radical. Ultimately CFCs are oxidized to CO2, HF and HCl. The success of the Montreal Protocol can therefore be monitored by measuring the amount of stratospheric HCl. Atmospheric HCl can be measured from the ground by high resolution infrared spectroscopy using lines from the fundamental band in the 3.5 µm region and the Sun as a light source. The total column density of HCl is being measured by a network of infrared Fourier transform spectrometers as part of the NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change; http://www.ndsc.ncep.noaa.gov/) [3]. HCl volume mixing ratio (VMR) measurements as a function of altitude can be obtained from high altitude balloons with in situ measurements [e.g., 4] or with an infrared spectrometer using the Sun as a light source [e.g., 5]. More comprehensive global observations have been made from satellite platforms starting with the HALOE (Halogen Occultation Experiment) instrument on NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) from 1991 to 2005 [6]. More recent HCl measurements (2004-present) are being made by the Canadian Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) on SCISAT [7] and the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on NASA's Aura satellite [8]. Many papers have been published on atmospheric HCl trends such as by Froidevaux et al. in 2006 [9] and in 2015 [10]. Froidevaux et al. [10] have combined HALOE, MLS and ACE-FTS data to provide a multi-instrument HCl time series for 1991 to 2012 called GOZCARDS (Global OZone Chemistry And Related trace gas Data records for the Stratosphere). Brown et al. [11] used tropical ACE-FTS data for the period 2004–2010. HCl trends are also reported every 4 years in the WMO ozone assessment [12]. In the present paper, we update global HCl trends derived from ACE-FTS data for 2004–2017. A complicating factor in determining stratospheric HCl trends is dynamical variability. For example, recent HCl volume mixing ratios (VMRs) in the lower stratosphere in the Northern Hemisphere have increased because of dynamics [13], while the overall global stratospheric trend remains negative. The effects of dynamical variability on the HCl VMR time series can be reduced by using the correlation with a long-lived tracer such as N2O [e.g., 14]. The HCl trend values determined by HALOE [6] were in the lower mesosphere at 55 km to avoid problems with dynamical variability in the stratosphere and because almost all the source gases are converted to HCl at high altitude.